Vu Khanh Van1, Tran Minh Phu1*, Vuong Thi Kieu Mo1, Nguyen Quoc Thinh1, Huynh Van Hien1, Vo Nam Son1, Nguyen Le Anh Dao1, Bui Thi Bich Hang1, Do Thi Thanh Huong1, Patrick Kestmont2, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq3, Marie-Louise Scippo4, Nguyen Thanh Phuong1
1 College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University
2 Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium
3 Louvain Drug Research Institute, Pharmacognosy research group, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels
4 Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
This study aimed to evaluate the current status on the use of probiotics, disinfectants and antimicrobials in grow-out farms producing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Structured interviews were conducted with a total of 58 grow-out farms in An Giang and Dong Thap province. Data were collected on disease occurrence and management, chemical treatments used to prevent and treat each of the reported diseases, as well as information on perceived human and occupational health hazards associated with the use of these chemicals. The use of herbal product was focused in this study in order to provide the background on the use of herbal product in striped catfish aquaculture.
The most commonly reported diseases by grow-out farmers were Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius and Motile Aeromonad Septicaemia with the frequency ranging from 1 to 10 times per crop, presented the improper disease management on these diseases. A half of interview farmers knew and applied antimicrobial susceptibility testing which enhance the disease treatment. In order to treat bacterial diseases, farmers reported use of a total of 13 different antimicrobials; most commonly used were amoxicillin (37.9%), enrofloxacin (31%), florfenicol (32.8%), doxycycline (32.8) and sulfamethoxazole combined with trimethoprim (31%), and the disinfectants chlorine powder (53.4%), benzalkonium chloride (41.1%) and iodine (51.7%). There was no reported use of nationally banned antimicrobials by grow-out farmers, except enrofloxacin has been banned since 2012 by Vietnamese authority. Farmers reported to use herbal products (29.3%) with the purpose of liver function enhancement, five products containing extract from Eclipta alba Hassk, Phyllanthus urinaria L, Cleome chelidonii, Cynara cardunculus. Also, farmers (8.6%) used herbal/plant as raw material including Combretum dasystachyum, garlic. However, farmers also reported that it is in doubt on the effectiveness of herbal products. In term of chemical use, farmer based mainly on experience (34.5%) and veterinarian support (51.7%). Some farmers (15.8%) reported accidents and direct health effects when handling chemicals though the use of protection measures was improved with 63.8% of farmer used gloves, marks, and etc. Our study suggests that there is an urgent need to investigate the quality, effectiveness and cost efficiency of herbal product in striped catfish production.
Keywords: striped catfish, herbal, plant, Vietnam, growth